Coronary angiography is a diagnostic test used to find out how much narrowing/blockage are there in your coronary arteries(coronary arteries are thin tube like vessels which supply blood to heart muscles).Blockage of heart arteries are commonly known as coronary artery disease (CAD). This procedure is performed in Cathlab, where a special dye (contrast material) and x-rays is used to see blockage in coronary arteries and its impact on blood flow to your heart muscles.It is performed while you are awake, under local anesthetic. It is usually a painless procedure and performed through either hand (Radial route) or thigh (femoral) route.

Angioplasty is a minimally invasive endovascular procedure/technique for reopening narrowed or blocked arteries in the heart (coronary arteries which supply blood to heart muscles) without major surgery.Blockage of heart arteries are commomly known as coronary artery disease (CAD). It is also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).in this procedure, a small wire mesh tube called a stent is placed in coronary artery which decreases chance of narrowing again.Angioplasty is performed by interventional cardiologist in cathlab while you are awake, under local anesthetic. It is usually a painless procedure and performed through either hand (Radial route) or thigh (femoral)route.

A pacemaker is a small battery-operated device that’s placed under the skin in your chest just under your collarbone. It generates electrical impulses and help to control your is indicated when your heart is beating irregularly or specially when it is beating too slowly.

This is of three types;
Single chamber pacemaker; In this type, only one pacing lead is placed into right chamber of the heart ie usually right ventricle
Dual chamber pacemaker; in this type, two leads are placed in two chambers of the heart ie right ventricle and right atrium.
Biventricular pacemaker; it is a special type of pacing, also known as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). It is required for the patients with heart failure with abnormal electrical systems. This type of pacemaker gives electrical Impulses and stimulates both the lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles)and upper chamber (the rt atrium) to make the heart beat more efficiently.

Balloon valvotomy is used interventional cardiac procedure to increase the opening of a narrowed (stenotic) valve. It is usually used for selected patients who have mitral valve stenosis with symptoms or tight mitral valve stenosis, which obstruct and adversely affect blood flow from upper cardiac chamber (left atrium) to lower cardiac chamber (left ventricle).It is also used to open narrowed pulmonary valve or rarely aortic valve. This procedure is done in cathlab.